- Divine Origin Theory of the State is the oldest theory of the state. Advocates of this theory believe that kings rules by God’s will, order and authorisation. The Divine Theory of the State is propounded by almost all religions of the world.
- The Old Testament records that the king is appointed by God and God has the sole power to remove him. King is regarded as the incarnation of Lord Vishnu according to several Hindu scriptures.
Social Contract Theory
- The social contract theory believes that originally people used to live in a state of nature without a state. At one point of time all the people living in a state of nature decided to come out of it and form a State.
- Hobbes’s work ‘Leviathan’ deals with the structure of the society and government. It is one of the oldest works on the theory of Social Contract.
- Hobbes was criticised for his extremely negative conception of the human nature and his social contract theory led to the origin of absolute sovereignty of the ruler.
- Locke has greatly contributed to the field of political philosophy through his works like theory of natural rights and individualism. He has been given the title of ‘Father of Individualism’.
- The historical evolutionary theory holds the view that the state has originated through a gradual evolutionary process. State is neither the handiwork of God, nor the result of a superior physical force, nor the creation of a resolution or contract, nor the mere expansion of family.
- It treats the state as a product of historical development like any other human institution.The key factors which played a part in the evolution of the state are natural social instinct, kinship and family, religion, force, economic needs.
- We can identify the following stages through which the state has evolved over the years.
- Tribal state: the Oriental Empire- Roaming tribes generally settled down in regions where nature was bountiful and responsive to the needs of man. These states were essentially power and property states, built on wealth and military force. Each tried to expand and dominate others. Wars and instability was the order of the day.
- The City state-the next stage in evolution of state took place with the birth of city states in Ancient Greece around 1000BC. When Greeks settled in Europe they got organised in local communities.