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11th Class Chapter No 3 - Economic , Social and Cultural Impact of British Rule in History for ISC

  • In the history of modern India, socio-religious reform movements occupy a significant place.
  • One of the major social reforms was the complete abolition of Sati even some Muslim rulers like Muhammad Bin Tughluq, Akbar and Jehangir also tried to check the practice of Sati.
  • During 1772, there was a plea to ban the practice of Sati to the government.
  • Mritunjoy Vidyalankar anticipated most of the arguments, later advanced by Raja Rammohan Roy; views were countered by Kasinath Tarkavagish.
  • Sambad Kaumudi, Samachar Darpan, Friend of India supported the anti- Sati campaign.
  • In 1829, Sati...
  • During the 19th century, Raja Rajballabh of Dacca tried to introduce widow remarriage in Hindu society but opposed by Raja Krishna Chandra of Nadia.
  • Pandit Iswarchandra Vidyasagar took up the cause and succeeded in 1856.  
  • He was entirely against early marriage, backed widow remarriage.
  • On July 26, the Act of XV of 1856 was passed legalizing widow remarriage.
  • Widow Remarriage was propagated in Punjab by The Arya Samaj, in Western India by Vishnu Parshuram Pandit and Govind Ranade.
  • In Odisha (Orissa) and Eastern Bengal, child offerings were made to Goddess Ganga by childless couples.
  • Female infants were primarily killed by the Rajputs such as Chauhans, Surajbansis and Bhaduriyas to avoid dowry in marriages. 
  • Problem grasped the attention of the British; the Female Infanticide Act was passed in 1870.
  • In spite of all opposition, British with the help of Behramji Merwanji Malabari passed the Age of Consent Bill in 1891, raised the age of consent from 10 to 12.


Reform Movements

  • Social reformers like Raja Ram Mohan, Dayanand Saraswati and Vivekananda were responsible for the social and cultural awakening in India.
  • Ram Mohan Roy established the Brahmo Samaj at Calcutta in 1828 to purify Hinduism and to preach monotheism.
  • He published Brahmonical Magazine in English, Sambad Kaumudi in Bengali and Mirat-ul-Akbar in Persian.
  • In collaboration with David Hare, he set up the Hindu College at Calcutta.
  • He urged Lord William Bentinck to abolish the practice of Sati legally.
  • He established the Atmiya Sabha (Society of Friends) and it was developed into Brahmo Sabh...
  • Debendranath Tagore renamed the Amitya Sabha as Brahmo Samaj.
  • He intensified reformist ideal by founding the Tatta Bodhini Sabha and Tatta Bodhini Patrika to spread Brahmo Samaj ideas.
  • Keshab Chandra Sen joined the Brahmo Samaj in 1858 and became its Acharya or main preacher.
  • He was the Editor of the famous English journal, the Indian Mirror.
  • Adi Brahmo Samaj upheld pure Upanishadic ideals. Keshab Chandra Sen formed the Sadharan Brahmo Samaj.
  • Arya Samaj was started by Dayanand Saraswati in Bombay in 1875.
  • Dayanand wrote the book Satyartha Prakash which contains his ideas.
  • His motto was “Back to the Vedas”.
  • He was against idol worship, child marriage and caste system based on birth.
  • He encouraged intercaste marriages and widow remarriage.


Posted in 11th on July 23 2020 at 04:58 PM


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