There are two types of reproduction systems in animals:
- Asexual reproduction: A type of reproduction by which offspring arise from a single organism, and inherit the genes of that parent only.
- For example, bacteria divide asexually via binary fission, viruses use host cells to produce more viruses and hydras reproduce by budding.
- In other words, these organisms are asexual, that is they do not identify as male or female. This process does not involve the fusion of gametes and the number of chromosomes almost remain the same.
- Therefore they are capable of cloning or splitting themselves into another organism.
- Sexual reproduction: Requires the interaction between two organisms (two parents) to produce an offspring. Reproduction occurs due to the union of morphologically distinct male and female gametes to form a zygote.
The human reproductive system in humans is a combination of male and female reproductive systems and requires the participation of both. The reproductive process involves three stages:
- Production of sperm and semen in the male reproductive system
- Depositing the sperm in the vaginal canals
- Fertilisation and gestation in the female reproductive system
The gestation period lasts from seven to nine months after which a baby is born. During the gestational period, the foetus is protected and nourished till birth by the mother.
Reproduction in Humans:
- Humans reproduce sexually and the fertilisation happens internally.
- Sperms are released in the reproductive tract of a female, where one of the sperms fuses with the ovum to form a zygote.
- The zygote develops into an embryo, which gets attached to the endometrial wall of the uterus. This process is called implantation.
- After the gestation period of nine months, female gives birth to a baby.
- The sex of a baby is determined by a type of sex chromosome present in male sperm.