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10th Class Chapter No 38 - Population in Science for ICSE

Population: Population is defined as a group of organisms of the same species living in one area and can inbreed among themselves.

Industrial revolution: The rapid development of the industry that occurred in Britain in the late 18th and 19th centuries, brought about by the introduction of machinery. It was characterised by the use of steam power, the growth of factories, and the mass production of manufactured goods.

Agricultural revolution: The first agricultural revolution is the period of transition from a hunting-and-gathering society to one based on stationary farming. During the 18th century, another agricultural revolution took place when European agriculture shifted from the techniques of the past.

Population explosion can lead to exhaustion of India’s economic and natural resources. Many people may not even get basic facilities such as shelter, food, and clothes. In order to check population growth, the government of India took various measures such as the introduction of various contraceptive methods, increasing the marriageable age for both boys and girls and so on.

Problems posed by rising population in India

  • Pressure on Natural Resources: Land, forests, water, food, energy, and minerals are being used up at a fast pace leading to problems like food scarcity, deforestation, erosion, pollution and energy crisis.
  • Large families mean more mouths to feed – the quality of life goes down.
  • The scarcity of jobs, per capita income lowered, basic needs like home and food become problematic.
  • Not enough health and social facilities for everyone.
  • Most of the modern day problems like deforestation, global warming, erosion, and pollution can be traced back to rising population.


Exploitation of urban vs. rural areas

Urbanisation includes:

  • Increase in buildings for homes, offices, schools.
  • Increase in roads, highways, railway stations, airports, docks.
  • The increase in industries, reservoirs, power plants.

This means that more and more rural area is being acquired for these purposes. Agricultural and forest land is lost resulting in degradation of the environment and climatic conditions. Sustainable use of resources and innovative use of available resources will reduce the increased consumption of natural resources and relieve the burden placed on rural areas.

Main reasons for sharp rise in human population in India (TIMER BOMB)

  • Traditional Beliefs: Children considered a sign of prosperity.
  • Illiteracy: Lack of knowledge and awareness about family planning, no recreation other than sex.
  • Mortality rate: High infant mortality rate makes people feel they need to produce more children so that at least one child survives.
  • Economic reasons: More children – more helping hands for the family.
  • Religious and social customs: People do not accept family planning methods.
  • Birth Of Male Baby: People feel male child keeps the family name alive; keep trying for a male child even after several female children.

Modes of contraception (HIBISCUS)

(Hormonal, IUD, Barrier, Induced, Surgical methods are Contraceptives Used widely, while Spermicidal methods have been introduced now).

Posted in 10th on July 16 2020 at 11:40 AM


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