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10th Class Chapter No 28 - Cell - The Structural and Functional Unit of Life in Science for ICSE

The cell is the fundamental and structural unit of life and cells are often called the "building blocks of life".

Organisms can be classified as unicellular (consisting of a single cell, ex: bacteria) or multicellular (consisting more than one cell, ex: plants and animals). 

Cell Structure:

  • Plasma membrane
  • Cytoplasm
  • Nucleus
  • Cell wall

The cell is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms. A cell is the smallest unit of life that can replicate independently.

Unicellular Organisms:

Organisms that are made up of a single cell and perform all their vital activities, like reproduction, locomotion, and digestion, are called unicellular organisms.

Example: Bacteria, Paramecium.

Multicellular organisms:

Organisms that are made up of more than one cell are called multicellular organisms.

Example: Plants, Animals.

Larger an organism, greater is the number of cells in its body.

Cells are differently shaped based on the functions they perform, but all contain the 3 basic and essential parts,

  1. Cell membrane
  2. Cytoplasm
  3. Nucleus

The structure of the Cell:

  • Nucleus: The nucleus is a membrane bound structure that contains the cell's hereditary information and controls the cell's growth and reproduction.
  • Plasma membrane: The plasma or cell membrane is a thin semi-permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm of a cell, enclosing its contents. Its function is to protect the integrity of the interior of the cell by allowing certain substances into the cell while keeping other substances out.
  • Cytoplasm: Cytoplasm is the clear, gel-like substance outside the nucleus of the cell of plants and animals.
  • Cell wall: The cell wall is the protective, semi-permeable outermost layer of a plant cell which gives the cell strength, protection and structure.
Posted in 10th on July 16 2020 at 11:05 AM


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