Supreme Court History
- The Federal Court of India was created as per Government of India Act 1935.
- This court settled disputes between provinces and federal states and heard appeals against judgements of the high courts.
- After independence, the Federal Court and the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council were replaced by the Supreme Court of India, which came into being in January 1950.
- The Constitution of 1950 envisaged a Supreme Court with one Chief Justice and 7 puisne Judges.
- The number of SC judges was increased by the Parliament and currently, there are 34 judges including the Chief Justice of India (CJI).
Supreme Court of India – Functions
- It takes up appeals against the verdicts of the High Courts, other courts and tribunals.
- It settles disputes between various government authorities, between state governments, and between the centre and any state government.
- It also hears matters which the President refers to it, in its advisory role.
- The SC can also take up cases suo moto (on its own).
- The law that SC declares is binding on all the courts in India and on the Union as well as the state governments.
Supreme Court Jurisdiction
The jurisdiction of the SC is of three types:
For more on the SC’s jurisdiction, click here.
Supreme Court Composition
- Including the CJI, there are 34 judges in the Supreme Court.
- The judges sit in benches of 2 or 3 (called a Division Bench) or in benches of 5 or more (called a Constitutional Bench) when there are matters of fundamental questions of the law is to be decided.