The concept of Non-Aligned Movement came into existence during the Cold War period, when Asia and Africa decided to remain non-aligned and did not join any power blocs. Non-alignment refers to the International policy of a sovereign state according to which it does not align itself with any of the power blocs.
Features of the Non-Alignment
The main features of the Non-Alignment are as follows:
- It is not aligned to any power blocs and it is against military alliances like NATO, SEATO, Warsaw Pact etc.
- The belief, that each country has the complete freedom to take independent foreign policy decisions.
- Non-alignment stands for action rather than passivism and it judges an issue on merit and is for the freedom and justice of people.
- It actively participates in the politics among nations.
Factors Responsible for the Non-Alignment
The main factors responsible for Non-Alignment are as follows:
- Global tension caused by Cold War.
- Struggle against Imperialism and Neo-Colonisation.
- Right of independent judgement.
- Use of moderation in relations to all big powers.
- Restructuring international economic order.
- Formation of a collective force.
Evolution of the Non-Aligned Movement
The origin of the NAM can be tracked back to the Asian Relations Conference held in New Delhi on March 1947, in which Jawaharlal Nehru highlighted the dangers posed by the Cold War and also stressed the need for the Asian countries to work for maintaining world peace. The concept of NAM was given by Jawaharlal Nehru. In 1954 Panchsheel declaration was signed between Indian and China. The principles, become the guidelines of NAM. These five principles were as follows:
- Mutual non-interference in each-other’s internal affairs.
- Mutual non-aggression.
- Equality for mutual benefit.
- Mutual respect for each other’s territorial integrity and sovereignty.
- Peaceful co-existence.