In 1783, William Jones a linguist, was appointed as a junior judge at the Supreme Court that the company had set up. He started studying ancient Indians text on law, philosophy, religion, politics, morality, arithmetic, medicine and other sciences. (iii) Englishmen like Henry Thomas Colebrooke and Nathaniel Halhed were busy discovering the ancient Indian heritage, mastering Indian languages and translating Sanskrit and Persian works into English. (iv) A Madrasa was set up in Calcutta in 1781 to promote the study of Arabic, Persian and Islamic law. (v) In 1791, the Hindu College was established in Benaras to encourage the study of ancient Sanskrit texts that would be useful for the administration of the country. i) In early 19th century many British officials began to criticize the Orientalist version of learning. They said that knowledge of the East was full of errors & unscientific thought. (ii) Eastern literature was non-serious & light-hearted. (iii) James Mill was one of those who attacked the Orientalists. According to him, the aim of education ought to be teach what was useful and practical. So, Indians should be made familiar with the scientific and technical advances that the West had made, rather than with the poetry and sacred literature of the Orient.